• Today is: Friday, August 12, 2022

Spring Revolution and Political Development in Ethnic Areas

Spring Revolution and Political Development in Ethnic Areas

(From November 2021 to January 2022)

The Federal Journal quarterly assess and publishes the development of anti-regime movements and coordination taken place at ethnic communities in Myanmar during the post-coup Spring Revolution. In this time, the report briefly covers the political and conflict development from November 2021 to January 2022 as the following;

  • Resistance movements of Local Defense Forces and Ethnic Armed Organizations
  • Injuries, casualties, IDPs and damage of civilian property due to SAC’s operation
  • The formation and activities of state/ethnic based Consultative Councils.

                                                                      Part (I)

Local Defense Forces & Ethnic Armed Organizations

  • Kachin State

In the reporting period of November 2021 to January 2022, at least 23 clashes have been broken out between Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the Junta troops. At least 9 clashes between the military regime and joint force of KIA and PDFs have been reported. Myanmar regime troop conducted at least 5 aerial attacks against KIA and PDFs during the fights. The townships where most incidents taken place are Putao, Sumprapum, Tanaing, Hpakant, Nanmati, Mokaung and Mokyein.

  • Karenni State Defense Forces

According to local report, 90 percent of Junta’s administration has been stopped in Karenni State. In 400 out of 700 villages in Karenni State, education and basic health care services have been reportedly able to be functioning by local initiation and management. Karenni State

People Police department have also been formed by 250 members.

In the last three months, at least 56 clashes in large scale were reported between the junta’s army and a joint force of the Karenni National Defence Force (KNDF) and Karenni Army (KA). During the fights, at least 31 aerial attacks was conducted by the junta’s army.  It is reported that the KNDF has formed 18 battalions and it has 6277 members in the present. The KNDF has had at least 156 clashes with junta troop since its formation, which left over 651 the junta soldiers died and 60 members of KNDF given their lives.

  • Karen State Defense Forces

During the reporting period of the last three months at least 40 clashes were reported between the military junta’s army and joint forces of Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) and Karen National Defence Organization. The junta used aerial attacks over 10 times on KNU territory in the reporting period.

  • Chin state Defense Forces

In this three-month period, at least 10 armed clashes between SAC’s troops and the Chin National Army (CNA) were reported and at least 47 clashes were observed between the Junta army and Chinland Joint Defense Committee (CJDC). At least 5 aerial attacks were operated in Chin State by the military regime since November.

In the present, the CJDC which is formed by CNF and 17 local defense forces have started joint operation. A Special Commando force of CJDC has been formed with 200 members, and it is observed that CJDC has listed 500 members to send to Central Command and Coordination Committee(C3C) formed jointly by NUG government and several EAOs. CJDC has announced that over 60 percent of Chin state has been under its control.

According to local source, there will be over 13,000 members under CJDC. Within a year from the military coup in Myanmar, over 200 armed clashes between Junta troops and CJDC in Chin State occurred which left over 1200 troops of the junta died.

  • Mon State Defense Forces

In the past three months, at least 16 armed clashes were escalated between the military junta and joint forces of KNU and local defense forces in Mon State.  In addition, at least 17 clashes were also happened between the Military Council army and People’s Defense Force (PDF). The most armed clashes areas were Kyeik Tho, Bilin, Thaton, and Ye Townships.

It is reported that G-Z youths, students, civilian, CDM civil servants and technicians together formed local forces in various townships under the name of Mon National Guard Force in Townships. Township Defense Forces emerged in 13 Townships such as Kyeik Tho, Thaton, Mawlamyine, Kyaung Sone, Thanbyu Zayat, Bilin, Paung, Kyeimayaw, Mu Ton, Ye, Thein Yazap and so on.

On February 16, 2022, the 75th diamond Anniversary of Mon National Day was celebrated by the leadership of the northern committee of Mon State Defense Forces in which many ethnic armed organizations joined the event as it was celebrated in ethnic liberated area.

  • Shan state Defense Forces

In the past three months, over 54 armed clashes were observed between the military council’s soldiers and ethnic armed groups. Most of clashes were happened between the junta’s troops and MMDAA. Moreover, at least 19 clashes were reported to be occurred between the military regime and local People Defense Forces. The military Junta operated air strike over five times during the clashes especially in the Mung Ko areas. On the other hand, armed clashes between inter-ethnic armed groups were also reported in Shan state.

  • Rakhine state

In Rakhine State, clashes were escalated between Junta troops and Arakan Army (AA) from 4 to 7 February 2022 which left seven regime troops, one member of AA and two civilians died. Again, on 9 February, clashes between the military regime and AA happened but no casualty was reported. In the present, AA has recruited its members up to 30,000 and 6000 members have been sent to the alliance areas according to AA leader Tun Mrat Naing. AA is observed to control 60 percent of the northern part of Rakhine.


Part II

Injuries, Casualties, IDPs and damage of civilian property

  • Kachin State

From November 2021 to January 2022, it was reported that at least 5 civilians lost their lives due to armed clashes in Kachin State and over 14 got injuries. More than 12450 people have been displaced in Kachin Sate since the coup.

  • Kaya (Karenni) state

In the past three months, it was reported that at least 69 people were killed and over 59 people got wounded during the armed conflicts in the areas. At least 153 houses were destroyed and at least 30 civilians were arrested. Due to armed conflict, more than half of its population (150,000) have been displaced from their native land.

  • Karen State

In the past three months, about 180,000 have been displaced in Karen state. In the present, 70000 people from the KNU control areas have been displaced, and 90220 people from Hlaingbwe, Kawkareik, Phapon and Myawaddy Township have been displaced.

  • Chin state

In Chin state, junta troops killed 200 Chin people and 46 of them are innocent civilians; 4 in Kanpetlet Tsp, 3 in Tedim

Tsp, 4 in Thantlang, 10 in Paletwa, 5 in Falam Tsp, 4 in Mindat Tsp, 12 in Matupi Tsp and 3 in Hakha Tsp respectively.

SAC’s troops have torched more than 813 houses in Thantland, similar cases are also observed in Mindat, Matupi and Falam Townships. At least 28 religious’ buildings (Churches) were also burnt down in Chin State. Due to offensive attack of Junta troops, over 70000 people from Chin State have been displaced and half of them have crossed the border to India.

  • Mon state

In the past three months, about 3900 people have been displaced in Kyaik Tho and Bilin Townships in Mon State due to the armed clashes. According to Lahgwin In’s research and data collection, up to January 25, 2022, it was reported that 18 people were killed since the coup, 258 civilians were still arrested within a year.

  • Shan State

From November 2021 to January 2022, it is reported that at least 6 civilians were killed in the armed clashes in Shan State, 20 people got wounded and over 10 civilians were arrested. The armed clashes have displaced about 34291 civilians in Shan State.

Part (III)

State/ Ethnic based Consultative Councils

On December 11, it is reported that Pa-O National Federal Councils has been formed officially, which marks that there have been six State and ethnic based consultative councils. They are ICNCC in Chin state, KPICT in Kachin state, KSCC in Karenni state, MSICC in Mon state, TPCC for Ta-ang Palong ethnic group and PNFC for Pa-O ethnic group. 

Among them, the ICNCC of Chinland and KSCC of Karenni have been drafting their respective subnational charter which is a preparation process to form their interim state government after approved their charter. It is expected that the interim state government in Chin and Karenni states will be able to form in upcoming summer. The fourth edition draft of Karenni Charter or Constitution has been finished and the ICNCC is still in the process of finalizing the first draft of the Chin charter respectively.

References –

  1. Ethnic News Medias
  2. Ethnic Human Rights Organizations
  3. Ministry of Defense (NUG)
  4. ISP Myanmar
  5. Interim State Consultative Councils (MSICC, KSCC, KPICT, ICNCC)
  6. Exclusive interviews of the Federal Journal

The report is compiled by the federal journal